India's second lunar mission was on track as its 'Bahubali' GSLV rocket successfully put the moon spacecraft -- Chandrayaan-2 -- into the orbit in a copy book style on Monday afternoon.
The Rs 375 crore, heavy lift GSLV-Mk III rocket slung the Rs 603 crore, 3.8 tonne Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft in its intended earth parking orbit.
The 43.4 metre tall, 640 tonne rocket, nicknamed 'Bahubali', carried the 3.8-tonne Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft, which will carry out India's second mission to its closest celestial neighbour.
From here, it will be a long, over one-and-a-half-month journey for Chandrayaan-2 as it will traverse the 384,400 km that separate Earth and its sole satellite.
After the launch, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Chairman K. Sivan said: "Today is a historic day for science and technology in India. I am extremely happy to announce that GSLV-Mk III injected Chandrayaan-2 into the defined orbit. This is the beginning of a historical journey for India to land on the moon in the South Pole, to explore the unexplored.
Launch of Chandrayaan 2 by GSLV MkIII-M1 Vehicle https://t.co/P93BGn4wvT— ISRO (@isro) July 22, 2019
"We had encountered a serious technical snag, but we fixed it. Team Isro bounced back with flying colors. The team identifed the root cause of the failure in 24 hours. The snag was fixed in 1.5 days and tests were made to check the systems. The expert team was on the job for the past seven days to check the systems."
"For the past 1.5 years, the satellite team burned midnight oil to realise the Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft. Now the mantle has been given to the satellite team. They will do 15 crucial manoeuvresover over the next 1.5 months. It is going to be 15 minutes of terror to safely land the Vikram lander on the South Pole of the moon. The world has been waiting for this mission," Sivan added.
Soon after the launch, Prime Minister Narendra Modi tweeted: "#Chandrayaan2 is unique because it will explore and perform studies on the south pole region of lunar terrain which is not explored and sampled by any past mission. This mission will offer new knowledge about the Moon."
"Efforts such as #Chandrayaan2 will further encourage our bright youngsters towards science, top quality research and innovation. Thanks to Chandrayaan, India's Lunar Programme will get a substantial boost. Our existing knowledge of the Moon will be significantly enhanced," Modi said in another tweet.
#Chandrayaan2 is also special as it celebrates perseverance, hard work and skills of our women scientists. My heartiest congratulations to Muthayya Vanitha, Ritu Karidhal & every lady behind Chandrayaan 2; you are an inspiration for women of #NewIndia!— Smriti Z Irani (@smritiirani) July 22, 2019
The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-Mark III (GSLV-Mk III) blasted off from the second launch pad at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) in Sriharikota spaceport at exactly 2.43 p.m. to begin its ascent into space.
About 16 minutes into its flight, the rocket put into orbit Chandrayaan-2 that comprises three segments -- the Orbiter (weighing 2,379 kg, eight payloads), the lander 'Vikram' (1,471 kg, four payloads) and rover 'Pragyan' (27 kg, two payloads) -- to begin its 48-day journey to the Moon while the ISRO will raise the spacecraft's orbit by a series of manoeuvres to put it on Lunar Transfer Trajectory in the coming days.
Originally the rocket was to fly on July 15, at 2.51 a.m. but due to a technical glitch, the mission was called off one hour before take-off.
#Chandrayaan ISRO Chairman Dr Sivan. Achieves better than intended orbital distance. 👏👏👏— Suresh N (@surnell) July 22, 2019
Abey @free_thinker he did pray. Last time he prayed and it prevented disaster. This time he prayed and it did better than intended. Shove your Vikalp up you know where pic.twitter.com/R2qL2MyZsp
After setting right the technical snag, the ISRO launched the rocket on Monday afternoon.
According to an ISRO official, the lander Vikram will land on the moon on September 7.
"Since this is the first moon landing mission of ISRO, we had built in buffer time which is being used now," an ISRO official had told IANS.
As per the July 15 flight schedule, Chandrayaan-2's earth bound phase was 17 days and it has now been revised to 23 days as per the new schedule.
On the other hand, the lunar-bound phase which was for 28 days under July 15 flight schedule, has come down to 13 days.
Efforts such as #Chandrayaan2 will further encourage our bright youngsters towards science, top quality research and innovation.— Narendra Modi (@narendramodi) July 22, 2019
Thanks to Chandrayaan, India’s Lunar Programme will get a substantial boost. Our existing knowledge of the Moon will be significantly enhanced.
Originally Vikram was planned to land on the moon 54 days after the rocket's lift off but will now do it in 48 days.
The Indian space agency has named the lander in memory of country's space pioneer Vikram Sarabhai while the rover's name means wisdom in Sanskrit.
According to the ISRO, on the day of landing - estimated on September 7, the lander Vikram will separate from the Orbiter and then perform a series of complex manoeuvres comprising rough braking and fine braking.
Imaging of the landing site region prior to landing will be done for finding safe and hazard-free zones.
The Vikram is expected to soft-land from a height of 100 km from the Moon's surface near its South Pole -- where, according to ISRO, no one has gone before -- and carry out three scientific experiments.
Subsequently, the six-wheeled rover Pragyan will roll out and carry out two experiments on lunar surface for a period of one lunar day which is equal to 14 Earth days.
A spectacular success for the Indian scientists, particularly the whole @isro team. This is truly a massive step for Indian space mission. Every Indian should be proud and this is a moment to celebrate for India. Fantastic. -Sg #Chandrayaan2 #ISRO #GSLVMkIII #IndiaMoonMission pic.twitter.com/br4z5yUiRH— Sadhguru (@SadhguruJV) July 22, 2019
The Orbiter with eight scientific experiments will continue its mission for a duration of one year. It will be orbiting in 100x100 km lunar orbit.
The mission also has one passive experiment from the US space agency NASA.
The Indian space agency said the mission will also try to unravel the origins of the Moon.
Both the lander as well as the rover will have the Indian national flag painted on them, while the Ashoka Chakra will be imprinted on the rover's wheels.
The success of Chandrayaan-2 mission will make India the fourth country in the world to land a vehicle and travel on the Moon surface after the US, Russia and China.
A total number of 38 soft landing attempts have been made, so far. The success rate is 52 per cent.
India launched its first Moon mission Chandrayaan-1 in October 2008, using its light rocket Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV).
For this mission, it used the GSLV-Mk III, a three stage/engine rocket with two strap-on motors powered by solid fuel. The second stage is a core liquid fuel booster and the third is the cryogenic engine. The carry capacity is four tons.
Till date ISRO has sent up three GSLV-Mk III rockets. The first one was on December 18, 2014 carrying Crew Module Atmospheric Reentry Experiment (3.7 ton). The mission was also to test the rocket's inflight structural stability.
The second and third GSLV-Mk IIIs went up on June 5, 2017 and November 14, 2018 carrying communication satellites GSAT-19 (3.1 tonne) and GSAT-29 (3.4 tonne) respectively.
GSLV-Mk III will be used for India's manned space mission slated in 2022.
India presently has two fully operational rockets -- the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and GSLV-Mk II -- with a lift-off mass of 415 tons and a carrying capacity of 2.5 tonnes.
India puts into orbit foreign satellites for a fee using its PSLV rocket. Revenue for launching satellites depends on weight of the satellite - higher the weight, higher the revenue.
Foreign customers are yet to come for the GSLV-Mk II rocket.
SRK, Akshay, Taapsee hail Chandrayaan 2 launch
The congratulatory wishes from Bollywood flowed for the team of Indian Space Research Ogranisation (ISRO) on the succesful launch of Chandrayaan 2 on Monday.
Appaluding the scientists for their hardwork, superstar Shah Rukh Khan recalled his song "Chaand taare..." from his film "Yes Boss".
"Chaand taare tod laoon. Saari duniya par main chhaoon! To do that requires hours and hours of painstaking work and integrity and belief. Congratulations to the team at ISRO for Chandrayaan 2," he tweeted.
The Project Director and the Mission Director of India's second moon mission are women, and filmmaker Karan Johar hailed girl power.
"Each one of us is lucky to be alive to witness this historic occasion! Chandrayaan 2 is the first mission by ISRO which is headed by two women - Muthyva Vanitha and Ritu Karidhal. Women are indeed taking over the world... and beyond," he wrote.
Akkineni Nagarjuna considered the feat as a "giant leap for India".
Nimrat Kaur said that she got goosebumps on seeing the launch of the space satellite: "Goosebumps all over. Huge congratulations ISRO and every single brilliant team member involved on making us so proud," wrote the "Airlift" actress.
A 43.4-metre tall, 640-tonne rocket, nicknamed 'Bahubali', carries the 3.8-tonne Chandrayaan-2 spacecraft. It had developed a snag last week. On Monday afternoon, it lifted off successfully from Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.
Congratulations ISRO for the successful lift off- Chandrayaan 2. Go for the Moon! pic.twitter.com/54BNVPOegB— Rishi Kapoor (@chintskap) July 22, 2019
After the launch, actor Akshay Kumar, who is gearing up for the release of his space drama "Mission Mangal", saluted ISRO for spending "countless days ensuring the success of Chandrayaan 2".
Singer Adnan Sami called the launch of Chandrayaan 2 a "proud moment".
Actress Taapsee Pannu wrote: "That's it ! A proud moment".
Actor Sharman Joshi hailed ISRO on accomplishing the "impossible task".
"Namumkin ko phir mumkin kiya hai ISRO ne. My heartfelt congratulations to the real superheroes who taught us, the sky is not the limit," he wrote.
Actress Bipasha Basu tweeted: "incredible".
I was 12. Sleeping on the terrace staring at MilkyWay in the once unpolluted skies of Delhi, I asked my mom ‘How far does space go? ‘Forever’ She replied’ Since then I’ve been searching for ‘forever’.— Shekhar Kapur (@shekharkapur) July 22, 2019
One day Indian scientists will find ‘forever’ #Chandrayaan2 #ISRO